Grammar 2



Negation
The English ‘do/does/did not’ or ‘no/not’ have two equivalents in Indonesian: tidak and bukan. The former is used to negate a verb or an adjective, the latter is used to negate a noun.
Negating noun
Saya kepala bagian
Saya bukan kepala bagian
I am a head of the section
I am not head of the section
Dia isteri Partono
Dia bukan isteri Partono
She is Partono’s wife
She isn’t Partono’s wife

Negative noun
Saya bekerja
Saya tidak bekerja
I worked
I did not work
Mereka datang ke pesta
Mereka tidak datang ke pesta
They came to the party
They did not came to the party

Negative adjective
Rumah itu besar
Rumah itu tidak besar
That house is big
That house isn’t big
Mobil ini mahal
Mobil ini tidak mahal
This car is expensive
This car isn’t expensive
Indonesian verbs
Unlike English, an Indonesian verb does not vary according to number, person or tense. The verb remains the same in all cases. For example, the verb ‘to go out’ in English has five variants: go out, went out, goes out, going out and have/has/had gone out. In Indonesian, the verb  ‘to go out’ has only form: keluar.
Compare the English and Indonesian versions:
He has gone out many times. Yesterday he went out with Mary. He usually goes out with Ann but tomorrow he is going out with Jill. All these girls are pleased to go out with him.
Dia sudah keluar berkali-berkali. Kemarin dia keluar dengan Mary. Hari ini dia keluar dengan Ann dan besok dia akan keluar dengan Jill. Semua gadis-gadis ini senang keluar dengan dia.
As you can see the Indonesian verb is much more straightforward. The verb keluar does not change at all.
‘Yes-No’ question
The form a question the answer to which is either ‘yes’ or ‘no’, one needs only to put apa or apakah at the beginning of the statement. It is similar to ‘est-ce que’ in French or ‘to do’/ ‘to be’ in English. In all three cases, the words are not significant except to indicated that the speaker is asking a question.
Apa(kah) anda bekerja di bagian Teknik?
Apa ini pak Hardy?
Apa Peter datang ke pesta?
Apa dia guru?
Do you work in the technical department?
Is this Mr. Hardy?
Did Peter come to the party?
Is she a teacher?

Silahkan, ambil sendiri!
When peter wants to make a cup of coffee, he realize he has no sugar left. He turns his colleague Sri, for help.
p:
s:
p:
s:
Apa kamu punya gula?
Ya, di lemari. Silahkan ambil sendiri!
Terima kasih
Kembali
p:
s:
p:
s:
Do you have (some) sugar?
Yes, I the cupboard. Please help yourself!
Thank you
You’re welcome

kamu
sendiri
lemari
You (familiar)
Self/alone
cupboard
ambil
gula
kembali
to get
sugar
welcome (lit.: to return)