Grammar 1


Formal pronouns
Formal pronouns are used by people who do not know each other very well. The same form is used for both personal and possessive pronouns.
Saya                I, my
Saudara          you, your
Anda               you, your
Dia                  he/she, his/her
Kami               we, our (excluding the person spoken to)
Kita                 we, our (including the person spoken to/you and me)
Mereka           they, their
For example:
Saya                (I)                    saya murid                 I am a student
Saya                (my)                ini rumah saya           this is my house
Anda               (you)               anda sekretaris          you are a secretary
Anda               (your)              itu toko anda              that is your shop

Noun predication
Subject
Noun pred.
Subject

Art
Noun pred.
Ini
Dia
itu
Asmara
Sekretaris
Samsudin
This
She
That
is
is
is

a
Asmara
Secretary
Samsudin

In a sentence as above where the predicate is a noun, Indonesian does not always need an equivalent of the linking word ‘to be’. Also note that there is no Indonesian equivalent of the English indefinite article ‘a’. the use the indefinite article is optional in Indonesian.
Compound nouns
A noun can be qualified by (and)other noun(s) to produce a compound noun. In English the qualifiers come before the noun they modify, in Indonesian they follow it. The rule is if the Indonesian word other is 1, 2, 3 the English is the reverse, namely 3, 2, 1. In the following examples the noun saya, bank, toko dan pakaian serve as qualifies.
Pegawai bank (1, 2)                           bank employee (1, 2)
Toko pakaian (1, 2)                           clothes shop (1, 2)
Manajer toko (1, 2)                           shop manager (1, 2)
Manajer toko pakaian (1, 2, 3)         clothes shop manager (1, 2, 3)
This rule also applies to verb and adjectives; they can serve as qualifiers.
Verb

Adjective

Meja makan
Mesin tulis
Kamar tidur
Kapal terbang
Dining table
Typewriter
Bedroom
Aeroplane
Tas merah
Rumah putih
Kopi hitam
Teh manis
Red bag
White house
Black coffee
Sweet tea

Question with ‘what’ and who’
Question with apa (‘what’) and siapa (‘who’) are formed by simply substituting them for the subject in to the statement sentence. In addition, the subject and the predicate can also invert positions along with their respective pitch levels but the intonation of the sentence remains unchanged.
(statement)
(substitution)
(inversion)

Itu/Aminah
Itu/siapa?
Siapa/itu?
That is Aminah
That is who? (lit.)
Who is that?
(statement)
(substitution)
(inversion)

Ini/buku
Ini/apa?
Apa/ini?
This is book
This is what? (lit.)
What is that?
(statement)
(substitution)
(inversion)

Itu/meja makan
Itu/apa?
Apa/itu?
This is a dining table
That is what? (lit.)
What is that?
(statement)
(substitution)
(inversion)

Itu/mobil Mercedes
Itu/mobil apa?
Mobil apa/itu?
That is a Mercedes car
That is what car? (lit.)
What car is that?
(statement)
(substitution)
(inversion)

Nama anda/Asmara
Nama anda/siapa?
Siapa/nama anda?
Your name is Asmara
Your name is who? (lit.)
What is your name?
 Note that unlike English, the Indonesian substitute for the name of person is siapa (‘who’) rather than apa (‘what’).

The courtesy word selamat

Selamat is used to address other or to wish well a friend or an acquaintance for whatever they intend to do. Literally selamat means ‘safe’ and is very widely used
Selamat pagi, Pak!
Selamat siang, Bu!
Selamat sore, Amir!
Selamat malam, Nona!
Selamat jalan!
Selamat tinggal!
Selamat datang!
Selamat bekerja!
Selamat makan!
Selamat minum!
Selamat tidur!
Good morning, Sir!
Good day, Madam!
Good afternoon, Amir!
Good night, Miss!
Have a safe journey!
Goodbye!
Welcome!
Have a good day!
Bon app├ętit!
Enjoy your drink! (Cheers!)
Good night!